Thursday, May 21, 2020

Music Vs. Art Education - 1897 Words

Much too often in America today, modern music and art programs in schools are perceived to many as extracurricular activities rather than important subjects that are vital to a student’s learning and skill development. The truth of the matter is that encouraging music and art education in public schools has a much larger impact on student’s grades, academic performance, and the economy than the majority people realize. Within the next year city school budgets will be dropping by twenty five percent, and despite the fact that music and art programs have been showing a dramatic contribution to student’s learning, this substantial drop in funding for the programs will lead to no dedicated money for art or music programs (Mezzacappa). There is†¦show more content†¦Music and art are clearly not two subjects that schools today can afford to cut off funding for based on this evidence. Music and art programs are responsible for increasing school attendance, whic h can lead to being one of the most important things in a student’s academic success in school. Students have to attend school and be present in order to attain the information from their classes and teachers if they wish to succeed. Better attendance means more students are in class, which means more students are getting the information they need to excel from their teachers, which ultimately means better grades and test scores for schools. As of today, arts are defined as core subjects in only twenty-six states in America (Mandel). If only twenty-six states are treating art education as a core subject, that means that twenty-four states are currently neglecting art programs and not considering them important to their student’s education. If more states are educated on the importance of art programs for young students, and the arts are defined as core subjects nationally, then there will be a noticeable increase in academic achievement across the nation. Art programs have been proven to increase the academic performance of student in schools, and until these twenty-four states treat art as a core subject, their students will continue toShow MoreRelatedTopics in the Daily Lives of Aztecs850 Words   |  3 Pages I will help you find a better understanding in their daily life as well as the many changes they migrated through over time. The four topics I will be discussing are: 1. Culture and Customs of the Aztecs 2. Civilization vs Barbarism 3. Art and Architecture 4. Education and Home Life. 1. Culture and Customs of the Aztecs The Aztecs had many different customs they followed in their daily life. One of those is that they baptize their children as soon as they are born. The midwife who performedRead MoreInformative Speech793 Words   |  4 PagesEating vs. Eating Disorders: What Causes Anorexia and Bulimia and How to Fight Both; Healthy Habits and How to Acquire Them: Be Careful What You Eat; Healthy Child Development: New Trends and Theories. Holdd on – there’s a bunch of other topics for informative essay ahead! A List of Informative Speech Topics: Teaching. Education Issues In case you’re looking for a couple of informative topics for presentation of an educational issue, consider the following suggestions: Education in AmericaRead MoreAmerican Education Vs. Chinese Education Essay1426 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican Education vs. Chinese Education Each country has its own kind of education, and education always plays an important role in affecting students’ life and study on many aspects. 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This is along with traditional music which is passed on throughout generations. The most favored sport in Turkey is soccer. Soccer was introduced to Turkey in the 19 century by the British. Along with soccer, there are many other sports thatRead MoreEssay about Should Art Be Censored?990 Words   |  4 PagesShould Art Be Censored? What if I told you that many artists around the world, including America, are being tormented and silenced for their freedom of expression? It sounds a little strange to think that in the twenty-first century a human can still be suppressed from expressing itself however it wants. A slender yet plentiful amount of artists to this day feel like they are left in the pouring rain when everyone is protected by the government’s umbrella of freedom of speech. Art whether we knowRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay1145 Words   |  5 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance In Harlem between the 1920’s and 1930’s the African American culture flourished, especially in areas such as music, art, literature, dance, and even in film. This soon became known as the Harlem Renaissance. With the entire positive and the negative situations of this time period the African Americans still seemed to have it all. The Harlem Renaissance came about because of the changes that had taken place in the African American community after the abolition of slaveryRead MoreEssay about Cultural Analysis of Brazil1398 Words   |  6 PagesRoman Catholic Church. Female/Male Roles. The men work and have authority over women and children. The women stay at home and tend to the children, but are growing independent, employed are more educated than men, taking over their households. Education. Education is in high demand. Schools are public and private. Primary. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Nonconformity and Its Effects - 728 Words

A nonconformist refers to a person who cannot abide by the established rules and values of society. Because he has a different set of standards, he perceives the world in a unique manner and consequently fails to accept the general population’s point of view. He is the one who walks the path most would be unwilling to take. One such individual is Meursault, the nonconforming protagonist in Albert Camus’s The Stranger. In this critically acclaimed novel, Camus carefully develops Meursault’s nonconformist character and explains how that personality causes a series of events that ultimately ends in Meursault’s death. Meursault’s emotionless behaviors clearly reveal his nonconformity to society. For example, Meursault could never express any†¦show more content†¦Rather, Meursault chooses not to dwell on the matter because the death would not essentially cause any difference in his ongoing life. Furthermore, Meursault’s lack of repentance after murdering a man solidifies the fact that he is a significant nonconformist. For instance, during the questioning for his action, he â€Å"didn’t take†¦ [the examining magistrate] seriously† and â€Å"it all seemed like a game† to him (63-64). Also, he â€Å"was even going to shake his hand† on his way out (64). The values of society state that a criminal should feel at least some regret over his crimes. Thus, most would agree that the arrested should feel some fear and guilt simply from facing the justice system. However, through his actions and attitude, he just ignores all of the generally accepted rules. Not only he lacks the emotion of remorse, he rather enjoys the time. Meursault’s indifference to the death of his mother and the arrest demonstrates his inability to conform to society’s norms. Due to his unacceptable nonconformist actions, Meursault invites distrust and coldness from the French judicial system, which symboliz es society as a whole, during his trial. For example, during the trial, the prosecutor catches on all the little details of Meursault’s atypical personality and utilizes them to raise Meursault’s punishment. He first accuses Meursault of cruelty by exclaiming â€Å"a stranger may offer a cup of coffee, but that beside the body of the one who brought him into the world, a sonShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book Into The Wild By Jon Krakauer1669 Words   |  7 Pagesfault, which ultimately led to his death. Deliberate living, nonconformity, and simplicity are three cardinal elements to transcendentalism. 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Iso 9001 Is An International Standard1207 Words   |  5 Pagesolder text of international standards, for example, some text that ISO 9001 implies on risk-based thinking is â€Å"carrying out preventive action [ that can] eliminate potential nonconformities, analyzing any nonconformities that do occur, and taking action to prevent recurrence that is appropriate for the effects of the nonconformity, (2015)† and this is an important assessment to consider. Risk-based thinking at a company or a sector helps with also driving change. It helps companies to create and take

Dissolved Gas Analysis Method Free Essays

FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1 PROGRESS REPORT 1 AUTHOR’S NAME:Ruban s/o Paramasivam STUDENT ID:EP083765 REPORTING PERIOD:18TH JUNE 2012 – 15TH JULY 2012 SUPERVISOR’S:Mr. John Steven NAME PROJECT TITLE:Dissolved Gas Analysis in determining Transformer Faults SUBMISSION DATE:16TH JULY 2012 1. 0 Background of Studies Oil sampling analysis is a useful, predictive, maintenance tool for determining transformer health. We will write a custom essay sample on Dissolved Gas Analysis Method or any similar topic only for you Order Now DGA is identified as one of the sufficient method of oil sampling in evaluating transformer health. The breakdown of electrical insulating material inside the transformer generates gases within the transformer. The identity of gases being generated is useful in any preventive method maintenance program. DGA method involves oil sampling method and testing the sample to measure the concentration of the dissolved gases. The two typical principal cause of gas formation within an operating transformer are electrical disturbance and thermal decomposition. All transformers generate gasses to some extent at normal operating temperature. Insulating mineral oils for transformer are mixtures of many different hydrocarbons and the decomposition process for these hydrocarbons are complex. During this process, active hydrogen atoms and hydrocarbons fragments are formed. These fragments can combine with each other to form gasses such as Hydrogen (H2), Methane (CH4), Acetylene (C2H2), Ethylene (C2H4), Ethane (C2H6) and many more. The gasses listed are considered combustible. The rate at which each gas are produced depends on the temperature. Therefore, the concentration of the individual dissolved gasses found in transformer insulating oil may be used directly to evaluate the transformer and suggest any faults within the transformer. After samples have been taken and analysed, the first step in evaluating DGA result is to consider the concentration level of each gasses. Basically, any sharp increase of the key gasses stated above indicates potential problem within the transformer. The type of faults which the key gasses can produce will be further discussed in the study. Literature Review 2. 0 Dissolved Gas Analysis Power Transformers are filled with oil which acts as a dielectric medium and also as a heat transfer agent besides being an insulator to the transformer. The insulated oil is made up of saturated hydrocarbons. These molecules are connected together to form a chain liked manner by carbon and hydrogen. [1] Table 1: Chemical structure of insulating oil and fault gases During normal use, there is a slow degradation of mineral oil which produces gases that dissolve in the oil, but when there is a electrical fault, the oil starts to degrade and temperature rises. Different patterns of gases are generated due to different intensities of energy dissipated according to the type of faults. This happens because of the broken chain of the chemical structure of the insulating oil. Therefore, the broken chain will form its own chemical structure which is known as hydrocarbon gases or also known as fault gases. It can be divided into 3 categories which is Thermal heating, Corona and Arching, The most severe intensity of energy dissipation occurs with arching, followed by thermal heating and the least severe is Corona. Figure 1 illustrates the process of breaking chain within the insulating oil chemical structure of the fault arcing, thermal heating, and corona. Figure 1: Breaking chain process of fault arcing, corona, thermal heating and pyrolysis of cellulose Gases which are produced by the degradation of oil because of the increase of temperature may be caused by several factors: [2] * severe overloading * lighting * switching transients * mechanical flaws * chemical decomposition of oil or insulation * overheated areas of the windings * bad connections which have a high contact resistance The type of gases present in an oil sample makes it possible to find the type of fault that occurs in the transformer. This is done by evaluating the concentration of gases present in the oil during maintenance. The type of fault and its characteristics are as below [3]: * Arcing Arcing is the most severe of all fault processes. Large amount of hydrogen and acetylene are produced, with minor quantities of methane and ethylene. Arcing occurs in high current and high temperature conditions. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may also be formed if the fault involved cellulose. In some instances, the oil may become carbonized. * Thermal heating Decomposition products include ethylene and methane, together with smaller quantities of hydrogen and ethane. Traces of acetylene may be formed if the fault is severe or involves electrical contacts. * Corona Corona is a low-energy electrical fault. Low-energy electrical discharges produce hydrogen and methane, with small quantities of ethane and ethylene. Comparable amounts of carbon monoxide and dioxide may result from discharge in cellulose. 2. 1 How DGA Works DGA method includes sampling of oil inside the transformer at different locations. Chromatographic analysis will be done on the oil sample to find the concentration of dissolved gas. The gases are then separated, identified and quantitatively determined such that the DGA method can then be applied in order to obtain reliable diagnosis [6]. The extracted gases meant for analysis purpose are Hydrogen (H2), Methane (CH4), Ethane (CH6), Ethylene (C2H4), Acetylene (C2H2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen (N2) and Oxygen (O2). These fault gases can be classified into 3 groups which are shown in Table 2. Group| Hydrocarbons Hydrogen| Carbon Oxides| Non-fault gases| Gases| CH4,H2,CH6, C2H4,C2H2| CO, CO2| N2, O2| Table 2 :Fault Gases Group Depending on the concentration of the dissolved gases, condition of the transformer can be evaluated. This is achievable because each type of fault burns the oil in a different way where it generates different type of gases. Therefore, it is easy to examine the fault base on the gas released and its concentration level. Table 3 : Relation between Fault type and Fault gases 2. 2 DGA Diagnostic Methods Insulating oil breakdowns to small quantity of gases due to over electrical or thermal stress. Thus, the composition of these gases plays a role in determining type of fault. Through DGA diagnostic methods, it is possible to find faults as discussed earlier. There are many methods in DGA and 5 methods will be studied in this literature review part. 2. 2. 1 Rogers Ratio Method The Roger’s method utilizes four gases ratios: CH4/H2, C2H6/CH4, C2H4/C2H6 and C2H2/C2H6. Diagnosis if faults are accomplished via a simple coding scheme based on ranges of the ratio as shown in tables below [4]. Table 4: Gas Ratio Codes [4] Table 5: Roger’s Ratio Code [4] The combination of the coding gives 12 different types of transformer faults. The type of faults based on the code is shown in table 6 below: [4] Table 6 : Classification based on Roger’s Ratio Codes 2. 2. 2 IEC Ratio Method This method originated from the Roger’s Ratio method, except that the ratio C2H6 /CH4 was dropped since it only indicated a limited temperature range of decomposition [3]. Here, the remaining three gas ratios have different ranges of code as compared to the Roger’s ratio method and they are shown in table 7. The faults are divided into nine different types as listed in table 8. [4] Table 7: IEC Ratio Codes [4] Table 8: Classification based on IEC Ratio Codes 2. 2. 3 Doenenbury Ratio Method This method utilizes the gas concentration from ratio of CH4/H2, C2H2/CH4, C2H4/C2H6 and C2H2/ C2H4. The value of the gases at first must exceed the concentration L1 to as certain whether there is really a problem with the unit and then whether there is sufficient generation of each gas for the ratio analysis to be applicable [5]. Table 9 shows the key gases and their concentration L1 [5], and table 10 shows fault type of specific ratios. Table 9: Concentration of L1 for Doernenburg Ratio Table 10: Fault diagnosis for Doernenburg Ratio Method 2. 2. 4 Duval Triangle Method M. Duval developed this method in the 1960s. To determine whether a problem exists at least one of the hydrocarbon gases or hydrogen must be at L1 level or above and the gas generation rate is at least at G2. [6] The L1 level and the gas generation rate for this method are shown in table 11. Table 11: L1 limits and gas generation rate for Duval Triangle Methode Once a problem has been determined to exist, to obtain diagnosis, calculate the total accumulated amount of the three Duval Triangle gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4) and divide each gas by the total to find the percentage of each gas of the total. Plot the percentages of the total on the triangle (Figure2) to arrive at the diagnosis [6] Figure 2: Duval Triangle Transformer Fault Diagnosis 2. 2. 5 Key Gas Method Figure 3 : Key Gases Diagnosis The principle of the Key Gas method is based on the quantity of fault gases released from the insulating oil when a fault occurs which in turn increase the temperature in the power transformer. The presence of the fault gases depends on the temperature or energy that will break the link or relation of the insulating oil chemical structure. This method uses the individual gas rather than the calculation of gas ratios for detecting fault. The significant and proportion of the gases are called â€Å"key gases†. Figure 3 indicate these â€Å"key gases† and relative proportions for the four general fault types [5]. 3. 0 Scheduled Work Task| Start Date| Duration (days)| Remarks| Progress| Project Title Selection| 28. 05. 2012| 12| Proposed own project title and submitted it on 4th June 2012| Completed| Research for Project Proposal| 08. 06. 2012| 10| Journals and articles were browsed through in IEEE, Science Direct, Scopus| Completed| Project Proposal| 14. 6. 2012| 3| Project Proposal was done based on the journals and articles found. | Completed | Research for Literature Review| 19. 06. 2012| unknown| Journals and articles were searched for the literature review| Ongoing| Progress Report 1| 01. 07. 2012| 15| Each progress towards the completion of Final Year Project 1| Completed| Research / Oral Presentation Preparation| 17. 07. 2012| 24| Complete the literature review and getting prepared for the oral presentation while doing research for the project| Incomplete| Oral Presentation| 10. 08. 2012 / 29. 08. 012| -| Presentation of all the findings and research and logbook to be submitted| Incomplete| Progress Report 2| 10. 08. 2012| 3| Each progress towards the completion of Final Year Project 1| Incomplete| 4. 0 Conclusion In the end of this study, I’ll be able to determine the pros and cons of all the different types of DGA diagnostics methods and be able to determine transformer faults out of the diagnostic methods which are very essential to prevent transformer damage. Suggestions and recommendations will be given to further improve the efficiency of those available diagnostic methods . 0 Reference 1. Church, J. O. , Haupert, T. J. and Jakob, Fredi (1987). â€Å"Analyze Incipient Faults with Dissolved-gas Nomograph. † Elecrical World. Oct. Pgs. 40-44. 2. DiGiorgio, Josep h B. (1997). â€Å"Dissolved Gas Analysis of Mineral Oil Insulating Fluids. † California: Northern Technology Testing 3. Domun, M. K. (1996). â€Å"Condition Monitoring of Power Transformers by Oil Analysis Techniques. † Proc. of the 11th Conference on Electric Power Supply Industry (CEPSI). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4. Siva Sarma, D. V. S. S. and G. N. S. Kalyani, ANN Approach for Condition Monitoring of Power Transformers using DGA. 2004 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2004. , 2004. C: p. 444-447. 5. C57. 104. 1991, I. , IEEE Guide for Interpretation of Gases Generated in Oil-Immersed Transformer, I. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Editor. 1992, The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc p. 27 6. FIST3-31, Facilities Instructions, Standards and Techniques Volume 3-31 Transformer Diagnostics. 2003, Bureu of Reclamation Hydroelectric Research and Technical Services Group Denver. p. 5-13. How to cite Dissolved Gas Analysis Method, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

On His Blindness A Response to the Poem

On His Blindness is one of the most famous sonnets written by John Milton. It is believed that the author wrote this poem in 1655 when he lost his eyesight almost completely (Wehner, 2011, p. 6). In this poem, the author reflects upon his work, creative talents, and the disease that deprived him of his vision. This literary work evokes powerful emotions and it certainly produces a powerful impression on the readers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on On His Blindness: A Response to the Poem specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While analyzing this work, one should pay close attention to its form, the use of language, and the main themes that John Milton explores. To a great extent, they are aimed at showing the internal struggle of a person who attempts to find a new meaning in his life, especially at the time when he passes through a serious crisis. This is the question that the narrator focuses on. At first, one shoul d look at the form of this poem and its structure. In particular, it is possible to argue that On His Blindness is a Petrarchan sonnet (Wehner, 2011, p. 6). This literary form greatly appealed to John Milton as a poet. It has a distinct rhyming pattern that consists of two tercets and two quatrains. For example, one can look at the opening lines of the poem, When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days in this dark world and wide, And that one talent which is death to hide Lodg’d with me useless, though my soul more bentAdvertising Looking for essay on comparative literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More (Milton, 2008, p. 58). On the whole, this rhyme creates a melody that enables the reader to sense the author’s despair and his loneliness. However, one should pay attention to Milton’s use of language which is even more relevant for the discussion of this poem. It can throw light on his feelin gs and experiences of the author. In particular, John Milton strongly relies on metaphors in this poem. For example, one can refer to the following phrase, â€Å"how my light is spent† (Milton, 2008, p. 58). The author uses the word light as a synonym to time. This metaphor is one of the most important details. It shows that Milton’s blindness affected his perception of the world. He regarded the loss of vision as the end of his creative life, and this event was devastating for him (Wehner, 2011, p. 6). It seems that the very existence is pointless for the narrator. Additionally, John Milton combines words that are not compatible with one another such as â€Å"mild yoke† (Milton, 2008, p. 58). To a great extent, these words can help the reader understand Milton’s conflicting view of God. It should be taken into account that the author was a devout believer, but at the same time, he struggled to understand why various misfortunes struck him. This is the ma in paradox that he tried to resolve in this sonnet. Milton’s language profoundly influences people’s response to the poem, because his word choices prompt them to think about a person whose ambitions were almost ruined by some overwhelming force. More importantly, this individual has to find the purpose of his/her existence. This is the main question that John Milton tries to answer in his poem. This is why the language of this sonnet should not be disregarded. The metaphors used in this sonnet can tell readers about the feelings and emotions of the poet. Furthermore, one should focus on the content of this poem and its main themes that the narrator reflects upon. First of all, John Milton refers to the Biblical parable about the talents and the way in a person should use the opportunities available to him or her. In other words, he tries to discuss his poetic gifts that had not yet brought him fame or recognition.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on On His Blindness: A Response to the Poem specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This issue played an important role in Milton’s life especially, when he began to realize that his eyesight was weakening. Apart from that, this sonnet shows that the poet was able to overcome his despair even despite the difficulties that he had encountered. To a great extent, he finds consolation in his religious faith and he comes to the conclusion that patience can help him achieve happiness and peace. This is the main goal that the narrator wants to attend. So, one can argue that the idea of hope was critical for Johan Milton, when he was writing On His Blindness. The following sentence eloquently illustrate the attitude of the author, â€Å"God doth not need Either man’s work or his own gifts: who best Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best† (Milton, 2008, p. 58). The themes that Milton explores in this poem enable readers to gain in sights into the inner world of the author and his efforts to cope with the idea of his blindness. Overall, the author’s inner dialogue is critical for the understanding of this sonnet. The sonnet shows Milton’s internal world evolved. Thus, it is possible to say that On His Blindness is an example of a literary work in which language, form and content interplay with one another. To a great extent, they are supposed to show Milton’s attempts to find a purpose in his life, especially at the time when he was not able to use his poetic gifts. The richness of Milton’s language and his rhyme are the main reasons why this poem enjoys significant popularity.Advertising Looking for essay on comparative literature? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Milton, J. (2008) On His Blindness. In. A. Goldrick-Jones H. Rosengarten (Eds.), The Broadview Anthology of Poetry (p.58). New York: Broadview Press. Wehner, J. (2011). John Milton’s sonnet â€Å"On His Blindness† is a statement on the  individual’s worthiness independent of one’s measurable achievements. New York: GRIN Verlag. This essay on On His Blindness: A Response to the Poem was written and submitted by user Christina Wagner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

World War I Causes

World War I Causes Causes of World War OneThe long-term origins to World War One start back in 1870 with the Franco-Prussian War. In the Franco-Prussian war France lost to Germany which lead to the two countries never being in an alliance with one another. Once the war was over it lead to the forming of the triple Alliance which was one of the main alliances during the first world war. The Triple alliance was made up of the countries - Germany, Austo-Hungery and Italy, and it was first formed because Germany needed help to guard Alsace-Lorrain from France as France wanted to get back its stolen land.Another of the long-term origins to World War One was Weltpolitic. Weltpolitic was a policy Kaiser Wilhelm the second, who believed that Germany had a right to become a global imperial power and should develop an army and navy to support its colonial objectives.Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the ...Kaiser Wilhelm's personality and his policy of Weltpolitic were seen as contributing to interna tional tensions. The policy lead Germany to construct a huge navy which lead to domestic problems as the navy cost heaps, It also lead into the start of the Boer wars and the Morrocan Crisis. Many Historians have said, 'Weltpolitic was only a half-hearted policy' (Paul Schroeder), and that it was only inviting the other countries to go to war. Fritz Fischer argued that - 'Germany provoked war and ensured that compromise was impossible in order to achieve Weltpolitic, to economically dominate central Europe, to create an colonial empire and to solve its own internal political and economic problems'. Fischer was an Historian that believed that the majority of the responsibility for the Start of the war relied in Germany.Another of the long-term origins to World War One was the Morrocan Crisis of 1905 and 1911.

Monday, March 2, 2020

B-17 Flying Fortress in World War II

B-17 Flying Fortress in World War II B-17G Flying Fortress Specifications General Length: 74 ft. 4 in.Wingspan: 103 ft. 9 in.Height: 19 ft. 1 in.Wing Area: 1,420 sq. ft.Empty Weight: 36,135 lbs.Loaded Weight: 54,000 lbs.Crew: 10 Performance Power Plant: 4 Ãâ€" Wright R-1820-97 Cyclone turbo-supercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp eachRange: 2,000 milesMax Speed: 287 mphCeiling: 35,600 ft. Armament Guns: 13 Ãâ€" .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gunsBombs: 4,500-8,000 lbs. depending on range B-17 Flying Fortress- Design Development: Seeking an effective heavy bomber to replace the Martin B-10, the U.S. Army Air Corps (USAAC) issued a call for proposals on August 8, 1934. Requirements for the new aircraft included the ability to cruise at 200 mph at 10,000 ft. for ten hours with a useful bomb load. While the USAAC desired a range of 2,000 miles and top speed of 250 mph, these were not required. Eager to enter the competition, Boeing assembled a team of engineers to develop a prototype. Led by E. Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells, the team began drawing inspiration from other company designs such as the Boeing 247 transport and XB-15 bomber. Constructed at the companys expense, the team developed the Model 299, which was powered by four Pratt Whitney R-1690 engines and was capable of lifting a 4,800 lb. bomb load. For defense, the aircraft had five mounted machine guns. This imposing look led Seattle Times reporter Richard Williams to dub the aircraft the Flying Fortress. Seeing the advantage to the name, Boeing quickly trademarked it and applied to the new bomber. On July 28, 1935, the prototype first flew with Boeing test pilot Leslie Tower at the controls. With the initial flight a success, the Model 299 was flown to Wright Field, Ohio for trials. At Wright Field, the Boeing Model 299 competed against the twin-engined Douglas DB-1 and Martin Model 146 for the USAAC contract. Competing in the fly-off, the Boeing entry displayed superior performance to the competition and impressed Major General Frank M. Andrews with the range that a four-engine aircraft offered. This opinion was shared by the procurement officers and Boeing was awarded a contract for 65 aircraft. With this in hand, development of the aircraft continued through the fall until an accident on October 30 destroyed the prototype and halted the program. B-17 Flying Fortress- Rebirth As a result of the crash, Chief of Staff General Malin Craig cancelled the contract and purchased aircraft from Douglas instead. Still interested in the Model 299, now dubbed YB-17, the USAAC utilized a loophole to purchase 13 aircraft from Boeing in January 1936. While 12 were assigned to the 2nd Bombardment Group for developing bombing tactics, the last aircraft was given to the Material Division at Wright Field for flight testing. A fourteenth aircraft was also built and upgraded with turbochargers that increased speed and ceiling. Delivered in January 1939, it was dubbed B-17A and became the first operational type. B-17 Flying Fortress- An Evolving Aircraft Only one B-17A was built as Boeing engineers worked tirelessly to improve the aircraft as it moved into production. Including a larger rudder and flaps, 39 B-17Bs were built before switching to the B-17C, which possessed an altered gun arrangement. The first model to see large-scale production, the B-17E (512 aircraft) had the fuselage extended by ten feet as well as the addition of more powerful engines, a larger rudder, a tail gunner position, and an improved nose. This was further refined to the B-17F (3,405) which appeared in 1942. The definitive variant, the B-17G (8,680) featured 13 guns and a crew of ten. B-17 Flying Fortress- Operational History The first combat use of the B-17 came not with the USAAC (U.S. Army Air Forces after 1941), but with the Royal Air Force. Lacking a true heavy bomber at the start of World War II, the RAF purchased 20 B-17Cs. Designating the aircraft Fortress Mk I, the aircraft performed poorly during high-altitude raids in the summer of 1941. After eight aircraft were lost, the RAF transferred the remaining aircraft to Coastal Command for long-range maritime patrols. Later in the war, additional B-17s were purchased for use with Coastal Command and the aircraft was credited with sinking 11 u-boats. B-17 Flying Fortress- Backbone of the USAAF With the United States entrance into the conflict after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the USAAF began deploying B-17s to England as part of the Eighth Air Force. On August 17, 1942, American B-17s flew their first raid over occupied Europe when they struck railroad yards at Rouen-Sotteville, France. As American strength grew, the USAAF took over daylight bombing from the British who had switched to night attacks due to heavy losses. In the wake of the January 1943 Casablanca Conference, American and British bombing efforts were directed into Operation Pointblank, which sought to establish air superiority over Europe. Key to the success of Pointblank were attacks against the German aircraft industry and Luftwaffe airfields. While some initially believed that the B-17s heavy defensive armament would protect it against enemy fighter attacks, missions over Germany quickly disproved this notion. As the Allies lacked a fighter with sufficient range to protect bomber formations to and from targets in Germany, B-17 losses quickly mounted during 1943. Bearing the brunt of the USAAFs strategic bombing workload along with the B-24 Liberator, B-17 formations took shocking casualties during missions such as the Schweinfurt-Regensburg raids. Following Black Thursday in October 1943, which resulted in the loss of 77 B-17s, daylight operations were suspended pending the arrival of a suitable escort fighter. These arrived in early 1944 in the form of the North American P-51 Mustang and drop tank-equipped Republic P-47 Thunderbolts. Renewing the Combined Bomber Offensive, B-17s incurred much lighter losses as their little friends dealt with the German fighters. Though German fighter production was not damaged by Pointblank raids (production actually increased), B-17s aided in winning the war for air superiority in Europe by forcing the Luftwaffe into battles in which its operational forces were destroyed. In the months after D-Day, B-17 raids continued to strike German targets. Strongly escorted, losses were minimal and largely due to flak. The final large B-17 raid in Europe occurred on April 25, 1945. During the fighting in Europe, the B-17 developed a reputation as an extremely rugged aircraft capable of sustaining heavy damage and remaining aloft. B-17 Flying Fortress- In the Pacific The first B-17s to see action in the Pacific was a flight of 12 aircraft that arrived during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Their expected arrival contributed to the American confusion just prior to the attack. In December 1941, B-17s were also in service with the Far East Air Force in the Philippines. With the beginning of the conflict, they were quickly lost to enemy action as the Japanese overran the area. B-17s also took part in the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942. Bombing from high altitude, they proved unable to hit targets at sea, but were also safe from Japanese A6M Zero fighters. B-17s had more success in March 1943 during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea. Bombing from medium altitude rather than high, they sank three Japanese ships. Despite this victory, the B-17 was not as effective in the Pacific and the USAAF transitioned aircrews to other types by mid-1943. During the course of World War II, the USAAF lost around 4,750 B-17s in combat, nearly a third of all built. USAAF B-17 inventory peaked in August 1944 at 4,574 aircraft. In the war over Europe, B-17s dropped 640,036 tons of bombs on enemy targets. B-17 Flying Fortress- Final Years: With the end of the war, the USAAF declared the B-17 obsolete and the majority of the surviving aircraft were returned to the United States and scrapped. Some aircraft were retained for search and rescue operations as well as photo reconnaissance platforms into the early 1950s. Other aircraft were transferred to the U.S. Navy and redesignated PB-1. Several PB-1s were fitted with the APS-20 search radar and used as antisubmarine warfare and early warning aircraft with designation PB-1W. These aircraft were phased out in 1955. The U.S. Coast Guard also utilized the B-17 after the war for iceberg patrols and search and rescue missions. Other retired B-17s saw later service in civilian uses such as aerial spraying and fire fighting. During its career, the B-17 saw active duty with numerous nations including the Soviet Union, Brazil, France, Israel, Portugal, and Colombia. Selected Sources Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress.†Ã‚  National Museum of the USAF, 14 Apr. 2015The Life and Times of Antoine De Saint-Exupry, www.aviation-history.com/boeing/b17.html.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Health Policy in Florida Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Health Policy in Florida - Assignment Example According to the research, it can, therefore, be said that  a few reasons when combined produce the effect of the unusually high price of healthcare in the state of Florida. For example, the state has passed many statutes and regulations since 1985 that require transparency disclosures from physicians and hospitals but this disclosure does not include insurance companies. Ultimately, they exploit this opportunity. For example, a website administered by the state authorities called www.floridahealthfinder.gov provides consumers average and medical services charged by the hospitals but it does not mention reimbursement rates. Keeping this prices as secrets prevent lawmakers and healthcare policymakers from making better policies. Florida healthcare Coalition has put out many reports pointing out flaws in the system over the past years but they did not sit well with the hospitals. According to Becky Cherney, FHCC President and CEO, they blame the committee for coming up with biased da ta. There are also some genuine hurdles in making the process transparent. For instance, providing healthcare pricing to consumers in a form that they can readily understand is complicated because every patient has unique needs. One cannot just put a standard for disclosing to the public to which every healthcare facility would adhere to. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 supports the notion that healthcare is a right and not a privilege. The intent of the law is to secure the maximum number of US citizens with healthcare. Making health care available to every individual at an affordable price is the motive of such an act. The affordable care act tends to create new incentives for changing clinical practices. The change in such practices as needed to provide better coordination and quality. Such coordination also gives physicians more information so they can practice their medical skills better than before. However, wasting funds and abusing health care programs cost taxpayers billions of dollars.